Squat Kupena (Polygonatum humile) is a perennial that belongs to the Asparagus family. It is a typical forest plant that looks like a large lily of the valley. In some sources it can be found under the name "Solomon's seal", which is due to the structure of the root. Now the squat bush is widely used in landscape design, since it is highly resistant to adverse weather factors and retains its decorative effect throughout the season, which allows you to create spectacular compositions.
Botanical description of the species
This plant is short, slow-growing. The height of its bushes reaches 12-30 cm. The squat Kupena is distinguished by dense low clumps and thin erect shoots. The leaves are lanceolate-oval or ovoid. They are pointed at the ends. The plates are sessile, arranged alternately on the shoots. There is a slight edge on the back surface.
Flowers at the kupena are squat bell-shaped, white. The diameter of the corolla reaches 2.2 cm. The buds are single, grow from the axils of the leaves in 2-5 pieces. at the same time. Peduncles are glabrous, arched. The stamens of the squat are protruding from the perianth tube. The plant forms buds at the end of May and lasts 15-20 days. As a result, berries-fruits of a dark blue hue are formed. They contain from 1 to 9 seeds. Fruit ripening occurs in August.
The root of the kupena is squat, cord-like, of a light shade. Its thickness is 2-3 cm. It is located horizontally to the soil surface. Every year in spring, the plant begins to grow, and several shoots grow. With the arrival of autumn frosts, they die off, and peculiar round dents-scars, reminiscent of a seal, remain at the root. As a result, the plant got its second name.
Where and how it grows
This culture is common in Siberia, the Far East, China and Japan. Squat Kupena prefers to settle in not dense pine and birch forests. It can be found at the edge of the forest, under the shade of shrubs and trees. Less common in meadows, hills, slopes.
Prefers places with nutritious soil rich in vermicompost. The plant easily tolerates waterlogging of the soil.
Application in landscape design
Squat kupena, as an element for landscaping a site, is increasingly used by gardeners. It helps to successfully disguise unsightly places where most cultures die. It should be planted in groups. It is suitable as a frame for garden paths, flower beds, artificial ponds. It can also be planted at the base of shrubs to embellish their bare shoots below.
In companions for a squat buy, you can choose:
- swamp irises;
- colored calla lilies.
To obtain new seedlings of this culture, it is recommended to use the method of dividing the bush. This procedure can be carried out at any time of the year, but the most optimal period is the end of summer and the beginning of autumn.
To do this, it is necessary to water a squat compartment in a day. Then, dig up the plant and carefully remove the soil from the root. Divide the bush into separate segments with your hands or a knife.Each of them must have a shoot, a regeneration bud, and a well-developed underground shoot. The strips should be planted immediately, deepening by 8-9 cm. The root should be laid horizontally.
The seed propagation method is not used for this crop, since pollination rarely occurs due to the narrow long perianth. Only long-bumblebees are suitable for this. Therefore, the seeds of the squat kupena ripen very rarely.
Landing terms and rules
For this culture, the composition of the soil is not important. Therefore, for a squat purchase, you can choose any slightly shaded area where the ground rarely dries out. Planting is recommended in late spring or early autumn. To do this, you must first dig up the area and prepare holes measuring 20 by 20 cm. Lay a drainage layer on the bottom, and cover it with a mixture of turf and humus in equal amounts.
When planting, the root collar should be deepened by 2 cm. Then sprinkle the roots with earth and compact the surface. At the end of the procedure, water the squat bush with plenty of water. For group planting, seedlings should be placed at a distance of 25 cm.
The plant does not require special attention to itself and is ideal for a garden that does not have time to take care of. It is only necessary to water the squat kupena during prolonged drought. This should be done 2 times a week with the soil getting wet to a depth of 10 cm. During the hot season, it is necessary to lay mulch from humus or peat between young seedlings, which will reduce evaporation.
It is only necessary to loosen and remove weeds for the first 2 years after planting. This should be done carefully, since the roots of the plant are close to the soil surface. In the future, the bushes of the kupena will grow and close together, so there will be no need for this.
The plant responds well to feeding, therefore, it is recommended to introduce organic matter into the soil in the spring and early summer, and then apply phosphorus-potassium mineral mixtures.
Preparing for winter
With the arrival of autumn frosts, the aboveground part of the squat kupena dies off. And its root is able to winter without any shelter. Therefore, the plant does not need special preparation during this period.
But, so that wilted leaves do not become a source of infection, they should be cut off at the base. When growing squat kupena in regions with difficult climatic conditions, it is recommended to cover the root of the plant with spruce branches. Shelter should be removed in early spring, without waiting for steady heat, so that the root does not come out.
Diseases and pests
Squat Kupena has a high natural immunity. Therefore, it shows resistance to many diseases. However, in the case of prolonged stagnation of moisture in the soil, it can be affected by root rot. To prevent this, you need to choose areas for the plant with good air permeability. When planting in heavy clay soil, you must first add sand and peat to it at the rate of 5 kg per 1 sq. m.
Of the pests, slugs feeding on its young shoots and leaves can cause damage to the squat bunting. As a result, holes appear on the plant, which reduces its decorative effect. To scare away, sprinkle the soil at the base of the bushes with tobacco dust or wood ash.
Squat Kupena is an unpretentious culture that can decorate any inconspicuous corner in the garden. At the same time, the plant does not require complex care and is capable of fully developing and blooming annually. But for this you need to initially choose a site, taking into account its requirements. And this is quite simple, since it takes root where other garden crops die. The main thing to remember is that when working with a plant, you need to adhere to the rules of personal safety, since all its parts are poisonous.