- 1 Features of the reproduction of irises
- 2 How garden irises reproduce
- 3 Reproduction of irises by dividing the bush
- 4 Reproduction of irises by seeds
- 5 Care for irises during breeding
- 6 Conclusion
Breeding irises is not a big deal. They begin to bloom the next year, immediately becoming the main decoration of the garden. Irises reproduce easily, they quickly take root after separation and planting.
Features of the reproduction of irises
Tools for work must be clean. The place is dug up and freed from weeds, since they oppress flowers and block the sunlight, which contributes to poor growth.
The iris is propagated 2-3 weeks after flowering. The procedure is carried out in dry weather. The separated fragments are planted in well-drained soil. Irises do not like rich soil and do not bloom in it, and excessively moist soil leads to decay of rhizomes.
It is recommended to lay seedlings in the hole with their roots to the south, so that they are warmed up by the sun as much as possible. This contributes to the appearance of young buds, which after a few years can be used to propagate the iris.
How garden irises reproduce
When choosing a method for breeding irises, it is important to consider the purpose of the procedure. For cultivation of flowers, it is better to use the vegetative method, because the culture will bloom next year. The generative method (sowing seeds) is used to breed a new variety or to domesticate wild-growing species. In this case, flowering will occur in 2-3 years.
The vegetative way includes:
- division of the rhizome;
- propagation by sprouts and root cuttings.
Reproduction of irises by dividing the bush
The bush can be propagated by dividing its rhizome, bulbs or green shoots.
Having dug out the rhizome, it is cut into several large parts, including at least one fan of leaves and two or three root links. Each of the parcels must be carefully examined, rotten and obsolete areas must be cut out. Small roots are cut to a length of 10-11 cm, then the leaf part is shortened to 15 cm. The leaves are cut obliquely.
The rhizome is placed in a solution of potassium permanganate for 1.5-2 hours, dried, the cuts are treated with crushed coal. After 2-3 days, when excess moisture from the roots evaporates, the cuttings are planted in the ground.
For the propagation of valuable varieties, breeders recommend using budding. This method of reproduction gives about 50 units of planting material.
The rhizome of the most developed plant is cut with a sharp knife into segments that have 2 roots and 1 bud, and they are planted in a container. The container is transferred to a bright and warm room. Water as needed. After the appearance of the first three leaves, the irises are planted in a flower garden.
Small shoots left over from the old bush should not be thrown away. They are used as much as possible for the propagation of irises by cutting off a stalk with several roots from the main rhizome. After drying the cut, the seedling is planted in the ground.
The most reliable way of reproduction is to separate from the mother bush a non-flowering sprout with a small segment of the rhizome. Do this at the time of flowering. The sprout is planted in the shade, sprayed as necessary. The advantage of this method is that the mother plant is not damaged and the shoots take root well.
Some iris varieties are propagated by dividing the bulbs.They are carefully separated by hands.
This treatment promotes the abundant flowering of irises. Before planting, the bulbs are disinfected with a solution of potassium permanganate. The 1/3 hole is covered with sand. The bulbs are not buried, otherwise the roots will not have enough heat and light. After finishing planting, the iris must be watered.
The best time to reproduce irises by dividing the bush is summer and early autumn. They will have time to take root before frost, survive the winter well and delight them with flowers next year. Carrying out the event in late autumn can kill the plants.
In the northern regions, it is preferable to propagate irises in the spring, in the southern regions - in the fall.
Reproduction of irises by dividing the rhizomes is carried out in July, when the weather is warm. In hot soil, the growth and development of lateral shoots and root system is inhibited, susceptibility to rot is sharply reduced.
Growers recommend reproduction by buds to the end of July so that they have time to ripen. The seeds are sown in early September.
How to dig and divide a bush
To avoid damage to the roots, the plants are dug out of the flower garden with a garden pitchfork. Previously, the bush is carefully dug in with a shovel - this will weaken the roots and it will be easier to remove it from the ground.
Bulbous irises are separated by hand, rhizome irises - with a sharp knife, which is repeatedly disinfected in a manganese solution. It is allowed to break the rhizome by hand, the percentage of its damage in this case is much lower.
Reproduction of irises by budding is carried out using a knife. The rhizome is cut into many segments with buds, which are then planted in a planting container.
Cuttings are separated with a knife, choosing small shoots from the plant. Cut them off, grabbing a piece from the rhizome with several thin roots.
Sprouts are obtained during flowering by cutting off a fragment from the bush that does not have a bud with a piece of rhizome. Planting material is planted in 5-7 days, when the sections heal.
Landing in a permanent place
Irises are planted in sunny areas. If the soil is clay, then the beds should be raised. The roots of the flower grow strongly, so the holes are formed at a distance of 40-60 cm. The bottom is filled with sand.
Before planting, the leaves are fanned out and planted in the ground, making sure that they are directed in the direction of the movement of the sun. The rhizome should be positioned slightly above ground level to bring the bud to the surface.
Saplings lightly sprinkled with soil are watered. To provide oxygen access to the roots, the soil is loosened.
The formation of a liquid fan of leaves in plants after reproduction indicates the weakness of flower buds, which means that the iris will not bloom next spring.
The cuttings are planted in a shallow hole, at the bottom of which ash mixed with earth is poured. The stalk is placed in a hole, watered and sprinkled with soil, slightly tamping it from above.
Iris sprouts and bulbs are planted in soil mixed with sand. The hole is covered with earth and crushed around the stem. Seedlings are watered and loosened.
Reproduction of irises by seeds
Iris reproduces not only vegetatively, but also by sowing seeds, but this is a longer and less reliable process. The seed method can be used for all varieties of irises.
Collect them from the plant yourself.The seed capsule, formed after the flowering of the iris, is enclosed in a gauze bag and left until ripe.
The resulting material is used in the same fall or next spring. It should be stored in a dry and cool place.
Before planting, iris seeds are soaked for 2-3 hours in a weak solution of potassium permanganate or in an antifungal agent to protect the plants from diseases. Then they are sown in prepared pots or containers.
Disadvantages of the seed method:
- when propagated by seeds at home, there is no guarantee that the iris will inherit varietal characteristics;
- the plants will delight with flowers in 2-3 years, and with the vegetative method, they bloom next spring.
Sowing seeds directly into the ground
Ripe seeds are sown in a flower garden in September, in slightly moistened soil. Observe the distance between the rows - 20-25 cm, and between the plants 10-11 cm. The seeding depth is 2 cm. The crops are not watered. For the winter, it is recommended to cover the flower garden with spunbond or dry leaves.
The advantage of the seedling method of reproduction of irises is that there is no need to thin out the seedlings.
- In January, the iris planting material is taken out of storage, wrapped in a damp cloth, placed in a sealed container and stored in the refrigerator for 1 month.
- In February, they are sown in peat pots, after soaking them in water for 3-5 days.
- 30 minutes before sowing, the water is drained, and the seeds are dried.
- Planting soil is prepared: peat, perlite, sterilized compost in a ratio of 2: 1: 3.
- Prepared iris seeds are sown in containers to a depth of 2 cm.
- The container is taken out into the open air. Before the cold weather, the seeds are regularly (but not heavily) watered. Excessively moist soil contributes to the rotting of the iris root system.
- For wintering, crops are left in an unheated room. Low temperatures will not harm them, they will only go into "hibernation", and will sprout in the spring.
- After the emergence of seedlings, the containers are moved to a sunny area, where the plant will have enough heat and light, and in May the seedlings are transplanted into a flower garden.
Care for irises during breeding
After finishing the breeding process, irises are watered. The next moistening of the soil is organized after 3 days, allowing the soil to dry out a little. The earth is regularly loosened, preventing the appearance of a crust. Weeds are weeded so that they do not interfere with the development of the root system.
In August, it is recommended to spray irises with copper sulfate (at the rate of 50 g per 5 liters of water). The treatment prevents darkening of the leaf mass of plants.
Before wintering, the bare roots of the iris are sprinkled with peat and garden soil. Varieties that are sensitive to cold weather are sheltered for the winter. When the snow melts, the insulation is removed.
Irises reproduce in various ways. They use the methods of dividing the bush, sowing seeds for seedlings or directly into open ground. Subject to the rules of planting and care, even a beginner in gardening will cope with the breeding process.