- 1 General description of the Dutch iris
- 2 Varieties and varieties of Dutch irises
- 3 Application in landscape design
- 4 Breeding features
- 5 How to plant a Dutch iris
- 6 Dutch iris care after planting
- 7 Forcing Dutch iris by March 8
- 8 Diseases and pests
- 9 Conclusion
- 10 Reviews of Dutch iris
Iris Dutch mix is a very beautiful bulbous plant that blooms in early summer. It is easy to grow a culture in a summer cottage or even urgently expel it in a pot if you know the basic requirements for care.
General description of Dutch iris
The Dutch iris, or Iris hollandica, belongs to the Iris family of the same name and is a perennial plant with an underground bulb up to 7 cm tall. Each year, one long stem up to 80 cm grows from the tuber with smooth oblong leaves.
The flowers of the Dutch iris are also single, reaching 8 cm in diameter, depending on the variety, they can have a red, white, blue, yellow or two-color color. In shape, they slightly resemble orchids, they consist of 6 petals, with 3 of them pointing upwards, and the remaining 3 hanging down.
Perennial flowering occurs from mid-May to mid-June, usually lasts about 14 days. After the buds wither, the underground thin roots of the iris also die off. However, the bulb of the plant remains usable; with proper processing, it accumulates useful substances in itself and again gives a peduncle the next year.
Varieties and varieties of Dutch irises
Dutch bulbous irises are represented by dozens of hybrid varieties. The varieties are very similar in terms of growing requirements, and the differences are in the color of the buds and in the size of the peduncles.
A very beautiful variety of Dutch iris has a rich blue color of the petals, in the center of each of them there is an oblong yellow spot. In height, Blue Magic can reach 60 cm, blooms massively and profusely at the end of May.
The Golden Beauty variety produces even, straight peduncles up to 60 cm in height. The dense buds of iris bloom at the end of May and turn into flowers with yellow petals, especially rich in the center and lighter at the edges.
Dutch iris White Excelsior blooms in early June with large and delicate snow-white buds. In the central part of the petals, a bright yellow elongated vein is noticeable. In height, the variety rises to 65 cm.
Dutch Iris Red Ember grows up to 60-70 cm above ground level. The color of the flowers is rather unusual, the upper petals are lilac, and the lower ones are brownish with a yellow vein. The variety blooms at the end of May.
Symphony is considered one of the brightest and most spectacular Dutch irises.Its buds are two-colored, consisting of bright yellow and snow-white petals, the peduncle rises 65 cm above the ground. Flowering occurs in early June.
Application in landscape design
Although the Dutch iris mix does not bloom for very long, it is very popular in garden plots. Most often it is used:
- as part of spring beds;
- in artistic compositions;
- when decorating garden paths;
- on the banks of reservoirs.
The Dutch iris mix can be used very well in continuous flowering beds. When the perennial withers, the space will not remain empty, the site will be decorated with the buds of other plants.
When breeding a Dutch iris mix on a plot, it must be remembered that it is a hybrid. This means that perennials can only be grown from bulbs or cuttings of rhizomes, they are usually sold in shops for florists.
Seed propagation for Dutch irises mix is not practiced. The method is very laborious, but most often it does not give results. Plants either do not sprout, or bloom only after a few years, and varietal characteristics are not preserved.
How to plant a Dutch iris
Even beginners can grow a Dutch iris mix on the site. At the same time, it is important to choose the right time frame and carry out preparatory work without errors.
When to plant Dutch irises
Perennial flower stalks receive nutrients primarily from their own tuber. Therefore, it is best to plant Dutch bulbous iris in the fall, from the end of August to the last days of October. In cold ground, the plant will survive the winter and in May will delight you with exuberant flowering.
Planting the Dutch bulbous iris in the spring of April or May is also permitted. But in front of it, the tubers must be kept in the cellar or refrigerator for at least 2-3 months. Then there is a chance to wait for flowering in the current season, although it will take place later than usual.
Site selection and soil preparation
Perennial irises mix love bright lighting, but react poorly to direct sunlight. Therefore, the flower bed must be divided in an area with light shading. The soil of the Dutch irises needs a nutritious and loose soil, with a neutral or alkaline pH level. The soil can be mixed with compost in equal proportions.
Before planting flowers in the selected area, dig the required number of holes about 20 cm deep and pour some sand on their bottom, about a third. The distance between the pits should be 10-12 cm, otherwise the Dutch irises mix will interfere with each other.
Planting a Dutch bulbous iris
The algorithm for planting a Dutch bulbous iris mix looks like this:
- Before planting, the tubers are disinfected by placing them in a manganese solution for several hours. This will make the material more resistant to disease.
- Prepared bulbs are dipped into planting holes and watered abundantly, and then sprinkled on top with sand and soil.
- If the Dutch iris mix is planted in the fall, then the flower bed must be mulched with foliage or pebbles to warm the tubers.
When planting in spring, mulch is not used, it will only interfere with the germination of peduncles.
Dutch iris care after planting
Taking care of the Dutch iris mix comes down to just a few simple manipulations:
- After planting, perennials are regularly watered, preventing the soil from drying out. It is necessary to moisten the flower bed, including in the fall, especially if the weather is dry, since during the rooting of irises, the mix consumes a lot of nutrients. Watering should be continued throughout the active period, until the buds wither.
- In the spring, the Dutch iris mix is fed three times - with nitrogen fertilizers at the beginning of the growing season, potassium and phosphorus during budding and after flowering.
- As soon as the perennial withers, watering will need to be stopped immediately. At this stage, the bulbs require dry dormancy, otherwise they may rot in the soil.
Irises mix with cut peduncles are left in the flower bed until their leaves begin to turn yellow and wither. Further, the bulbs can be immediately dug out, it is not necessary to wait for the complete drying of the aboveground part. Theoretically, in dry summers, tubers can not be extracted at all, but more often they still do this, since even in the absence of rain, the soil at depth can remain moist.
Bulbs storage rules
After removing the iris bulbs from the flower bed, the mix must be shaken off the remnants of the earth and disinfected in a manganese solution or Fundazole. Then for 2-3 weeks they are sent for drying at 20-25 ° C with good ventilation.
Dried onions need to be sorted out, damaged and rotten material discarded. Healthy tubers are stored in a dark place with a temperature of 15 to 20 ° C. In such conditions, Dutch irises should spend the rest of the summer. In the fall, they can be planted again in the ground or sent to artificial home stratification.
Forcing Dutch iris by March 8
If desired, the Dutch iris mix can be made to bloom in early March, for International Women's Day. Bulbous perennial suitable for urgent forcing in greenhouses or at home in pots:
- At the beginning of summer, iris bulbs are dug out of the flower bed and stored for a month at temperatures up to 30 ° C, and then for another month at 20 ° C.
- Then the tubers intended for distillation are transferred to a dark and cold place with a temperature of no more than 10 ° C.
- Around December 25, the bulbs are planted in a greenhouse, boxes or pots and provide a temperature of 12 ° C, and after a couple of weeks they raise it to 16 ° C.
If you create a mix of moderately warm conditions for the Dutch iris and provide it with a daylight hours of at least 14 hours, then 2.5 months after planting, the plant will begin to bloom.
Diseases and pests
Although the Dutch irises mix remain in the soil only until the beginning of summer, even in such a short time they can be damaged by insects and fungi. Of the diseases, the greatest danger to culture is represented by:
- fusarium - you can recognize the disease by a grayish bloom on the leaves and growth retardation;
- wet rot - the fungus develops in early spring during the snow melting period and leads to rotting of the bulbs;
- rust, the disease leaves ugly brown-brown spots on the leaves of a perennial;
Fungal diseases are very dangerous for Dutch iris mix, as they are difficult to treat. The infected bulb quickly begins to rot, and the perennial completely dies. When the first signs appear, the flower bed can be treated with the preparations Maxim, Topaz, Doxycycline and Triazol. However, it is better to fight fungi prophylactically and soak the bulbs in a fungicidal solution before planting.
Of the insects, Dutch iris is most often harmed by:
- scoop butterflies - their caterpillars eat away the flower stalks of irises from the inside;
- thrips - pests suck out juices not only from leaves, but also from rhizomes;
- aphid - the insect eats the plant and, moreover, secretes mucus harmful to the perennial.
To eliminate pests, use a solution of Karbofos or Actellik. You can prophylactically protect the flower bed from insects if you regularly loosen the soil, prevent waterlogging and get rid of weeds.
Iris Dutch mix is a spectacular and easy-to-grow flower. You can achieve maximum decorativeness if you remember the need for stratification for bulbous plants and follow the basic rules of care.
Reviews of Dutch iris
I love irises very much and always try to find a place for them in the garden. I usually plant the bulbs in the fall, but have twice tried the spring planting with pre-cooling in the cellar. Dutch irises mix after her really bloomed, but later than the term and not as large buds as usual.